Markku Kulmala, Pertti Hari and colleagues in APFE Group started the SMEAR II station in 1995, with an extensive range of measurement interests. The station is situated in a 47-year-old (in 2009) Scots pine stand. It has several operation units to reach into and above the stand canopy: a 73 m high tower for atmospheric and flux measurements, one 18 m tower for irradiation and flux measurements and an other for tree physiology measurements. We perform soil and soil-water measurements on two water catchment areas. In the vicinity of the station we measure solar irradiance from 280 to 800 nm with a radio spectrometer. Some 50 to 100 people are involved in the research carried out at the stations, and they produce about 50 peer-reviewed papers annually. The station has been involved in more than 10 EU projects.
The northward landscape from the mast of the SMEAR II
A shoot chamber at SMEAR II
The main building of the SMEAR II
The mast of the SMEAR II is in the midlle of pine stand
The mast of SMEAR II from under