WP3: Natural emissions associated with warming and cryospheric changes
WP-leader: Henrik Skov, email: hsk (at) dmu.dk
Co-WP-leader: Douglas Nilsson, email: douglas.nilsson (at) itm.su.se
Co-WP-leader: Jaana Bäck, email: jaana.back (at) helsinki.fi
- Quantify natural sources of primary aerosols and precursor gases for secondary aerosol, e.g. sea salt, organic sea spray, dust, DMS, VOC, halogens, and sea/soil/snow bacteria. Emphasis is given to interactions with climate and cryosphere changes, directly or through associated changes in physical/chemical/biological properties/processes or in the biosphere
- Describe reaction pathways and effects on aerosol and ozone formation of the emitted gases
- Characterize the aerosols formed from cryosphere related sources: Chemical/physical properties, biological fraction, internally/externally mixed, potential to act as CCN or IN
Experimental results are used in climate models as improved process parameterizations for present Arctic conditions. WP3 will develop new (or validate existing) source parameterizations to be used in atmospheric transport and climate models. Focus is on Arctic conditions and processes that can’t be extrapolated from lower latitudes, and changes in emissions due to climate and cryosphere changes.
We use direct micrometeorological flux methods as well as flux chambers, in situ sea spray tank experiments, laboratory experiments and chemical analysis of snow samples. These are designed to cover present Arctic conditions and proxy conditions for changed climate and cryosphere and associate changes in biosphere composition. Field experiments are carried out at Arctic stations, on board ships and aircrafts. The source parameterizations are evaluated in process models, and tested in climate models. WP3 will depend on WP2 for information on cryosphere changes and deliver experimental data and parameterizations to WP5, 7 and 8. Field work is coordinated with WP4 and 5.