WP2 Canopy, local and regional scale processes

WP2 focuses on canopy, local and regional scale processes, bridging the gap between the short process times of oxidation, mixing and removal of organic compounds and aerosols and many biosphere processes to the canopy and regional scales enabling the up-scaling to Earth system behavior.

Task 2.1 Aerosol dynamics in the atmosphere

The task evaluates the processes driving formation and dynamics of atmospheric clusters and the compounds participating in aerosol formation and growth. The role of atmospheric ions and galactic cosmic rays will be determined. The work includes development of measurement techniques for aerosol particle characterization and aerosol-cloud interaction studies and development of measurement platforms (aircrafts, tall towers, atmospheric soundings, satellites). These will provide quantified data on particle physical and chemical properties relevant to climate, such as the aerosol phase state and its effect on cloud condensation and ice nuclei activation and changes in the particle chemical composition due to the cloud processing. These processes are then studied in detail in intermediate scale models, generalizing the results for the global scale.

Task 2.2 Cloud condensation nuclei formation, cloud microphysics and cloud processes

This task clarifies the biogenic and anthropogenic contribution to the formation, chemical composition and physical phase of atmospheric SOA particles based on cloud-resolved modeling, in-situ observations and active remote sensing. Role of meteorology, cloud microphysics and aerosol-cloud interactions (size, chemistry, phase) will be quantified in warm, mixed and ice clouds. The effect of these changes in cloud droplets are further evaluated by an array of cloud models and compared to cloud in-situ and remote sensing datasets.

Task 2.3 Seasonal variation of snow and ice cover including frost/permafrost distributions

The task analyzes short and long term variability of surface albedo, reflected radiation, near-surface heat transport and the effects of aerosol particles, concentrations, cloud cover and properties and changes in precipitation on radiation balance on lakes and rivers. Improved understanding on spatial variability of the cryosphere-atmosphere and cryosphere-biosphere interactions based on integrated ground-based remote sensing measurements (tower based surface albedo, microwave emission and backscattering observations) and observations from the satellites will be acquired.

Task 2.4 Production of aerosol precursors by biosphere processes in various environments

The task includes quantitative analysis and models of biosphere processes in vegetation growth, nutrient and water use, and in the effects of stress factors modifying the plant performance and the synthesis of volatile organic carbon and nitrogen compounds, specifically interactions between below and above ground compartments. The approach includes field measurements of processes and fluxes from rural (forest, peatland and freshwater), and urban ecosystems and ecosystem-atmosphere interface, experimental work on plant-soil-atmosphere interfaces and process-based modeling.

Task 2.5 Atmospheric turbulence, fluxes of clusters, GHGs, BVOCs, amines, sulfur compounds, oxidants, HONO, COS

The task quantifies the emissions and fluxes of inorganic reactive gases (HONO, HNO3, NH3) and biogenic volatile organic compounds (terpenoids, amines, oxygenated compounds) using in-situ ion chromatography and mass spectrometry with enclosure, gradient and eddy covariance techniques over different environments taking into account the oxidation within the canopy. The task improves estimates of the magnitude and variability of ecosystem-scale photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration with novel tracers such as stable isotopes and carbonyl sulfide sinks in ecosystems.

Task 2.6 Boundary layer dynamics and interactions with biochemical cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur

The task quantifies the links between ecosystem hydrological cycle, BVOC production and aerosol processes in the boundary layer including the effect of boundary layer height to trace gas and aerosol concentrations via the sensible heat flux and evapo-transpiration. We will apply zero-dimension process models and incorporate them into large eddy simulations to account for the meteorology, and develop capabilities to up-scale the cluster-scale processes to regional and global models. We will develop ecosystem models including a description of forest growth processes important for the regional atmospheric properties.

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