SMEAR Flagship

The SMEAR II is the flagship station of the SMEAR Concept with the longest and most comprehensive aerosol measurement series since 1995. SMEAR II carries out comprehensive measurements on land- atmosphere interactions 24/7 on 1200 parameters and delivers data products based on the European Research Infrastructures ICOS, ACTRIS and eLTER standards. 

Flaship SMEARII illustration2

Following continuous and long-term comprehensive observations of meteorological situations / urban boundary layer, local, ground level concentrations, and ecosystem functions are required from a station to be a SMEAR flagship station:

  • temperature profiles in atmosphere and soil 

  • aerosol concentrations 

  • O3 and NOx concentrations 

  • global radiation, photosynthetically active radiation and net radiation 

  • soil water content and tension 

  • precipitation 


  • leaf area and mass 

  • amount of soil organic matter (annual) 

  • mass of woody components (annual) 

  • deposition of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium, and H+ ions 

  • CO2, H2O, heat and momentum fluxes between ecosystem and atmosphere 

  • aerosol size distributions 

  • profiles of CO2, O3, SO2, NO, NO2, and N2O in atmosphere and soil 

  • focused campaigns to determine the dependences of processes on environmental factors


  • VOC (Volatile Orcanic Compounds) emissions from vegetation and soil
  • VOC profiles in atmosphere and soil
  • H2SO4, NH3 and CH4 in the air
  • size distribution of ions in the air
  • cloud radar
  • PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation) distribution inside canopy
  • monitoring of spectral light distribution
  • monitoring of atmospheric turbulence
  • monitoring of nutrient, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potasium and calcium, and H+ concentrations in soil water
  • monitoring of water flow in wood
  • CO2 and H2O fluxes between soil and atmosphere
  • use of stable isotopes in studies of processes, such as photosynthesis and decomposition of soil organic matter