Markku Kulmala, Pertti Hari and colleagues in APFE Group started the SMEAR II station in 1995, with an extensive range of measurement interests. The station is situated in a 47-year-old (in 2009) Scots pine stand. It has several operation units to reach into and above the stand canopy: a 128 m high tower for atmospheric and flux measurements, one 18 m tower for irradiation and flux measurements, another for tree physiology measurements and 35 m walk-up tower for aerosol measurements. We perform soil and soil-water measurements on two water catchment areas. In the vicinity of the station we measure solar irradiance from 280 to 800 nm with a radio spectrometer. Some 50 to 100 people are involved in the research carried out at the stations, and they produce about 50 peer-reviewed papers annually. The station has been involved in more than 10 EU projects.
The mast of SMEAR II from side and top. The new measurement tower.
Shoot chamber at SMEAR II. Monitoring PAM Fluorometer at SMEAR II.
The Hitu-cottage of the SMEAR II and the particle concentration and size measurements inside it.
Four seasons of the northward landscape from the mast of the SMEAR II.