The SMEAR (Station for Measuring Earth surface – Atmosphere Relations) Concept offers an observation platform that provides continuous, comprehensive environmental information from local level up-to the global Grand Challenges. The measurements cover fluxes, storages and concentrations in the land ecosystem–atmosphere continuum on different surfaces (forest, wetland, river, lake, agriculture ocean, urban etc). The comprehensive measurements enable analysis on various interactions and feedback like the COBACC feedback loop, air pollution, in the atmosphere–Earth surface continuum.
The observations are a selected set of central variables covering different processes, and concentrations and fluxes of greenhouse gases, trace gases, CH4, NH3, H2SO4, HONO, HNO3 and aerosol particles. The measurements also include meteorological parameters, clouds, atmospheric ions, external radiation, radon, ecosystems, soil dynamics, vegetation functioning incl. photosynthesis gas exchange, soil dynamics and vegetation growth, as well as ground-based remote sensing. Currently, we are measuring about 1200 different variables at the SMEAR Concept Flagship station, the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä Finland.
|SMEAR Staions:||Hari and Kulmala (2005)|
|SMEAR Concept:||Hari et al. (2016)|
|COBACC Feedback loop:||Kulmala et al. (2014)|