The SMEAR II is the flagship station of the SMEAR Concept with the longest and most comprehensive aerosol measurement series since 1995. SMEAR II carries out comprehensive measurements on land- atmosphere interactions 24/7 on 1200 parameters and delivers data products based on the European Research Infrastructures ICOS, ACTRIS and eLTER standards. 

Following continuous and long-term comprehensive observations of meteorological situations / urban boundary layer, local, ground level concentrations, and ecosystem functions are required from a station to be a SMEAR flagship station:

  • temperature profiles in atmosphere and soil 

  • aerosol concentrations 

  • O3 and NOx concentrations 

  • global radiation, photosynthetically active radiation and net radiation 

  • soil water content and tension 

  • precipitation 

  • leaf area and mass 

  • amount of soil organic matter (annual) 

  • mass of woody components (annual) 

  • deposition of nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium, and H+ ions 

  • CO2, H2O, heat and momentum fluxes between ecosystem and atmosphere 

  • aerosol size distributions 

  • profiles of CO2, O3, SO2, NO, NO2, and N2O in atmosphere and soil 

  • focused campaigns to determine the dependences of processes on environmental factors

  • VOC (Volatile Orcanic Compounds) emissions from vegetation and soil
  • VOC profiles in atmosphere and soil
  • H2SO4, NH3 and CH4 in the air
  • size distribution of ions in the air
  • cloud radar
  • PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation) distribution inside canopy
  • monitoring of spectral light distribution
  • monitoring of atmospheric turbulence
  • monitoring of nutrient, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potasium and calcium, and H+ concentrations in soil water
  • monitoring of water flow in wood
  • CO2 and H2O fluxes between soil and atmosphere
  • use of stable isotopes in studies of processes, such as photosynthesis and decomposition of soil organic matter
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